Category archives for all Original Research

Effect of an educational intervention and parental vaccine refusal forms on childhood vaccination rates in a clinic with a large Somali population

childhood vaccination

Objective: The purpose of this study is to improve vaccination rates at a clinic with a large Somali population, and many vaccine hesitant parents. The study evaluated the effectiveness of some new materials for vaccine hesitant parents. Methods: Educational sessions were given to providers and staff to give “talking points” and to introduce a vaccine refusal form. […]

Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

Burden of road traffic accident in nepal

Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine […]

Mental health problems due to community violence exposure in a small urban setting

mental health

Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living […]

Assessing the accuracy of patient report of the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange) for smoking cessation counseling

smoking cessation

Objective: The 5As framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) is a recommended strategy for smoking cessation counseling in primary care. This study compares patient report with direct observation to assess the degree of recall bias for each of the 5As. Methods: Primary care visits by 107 adult smokers and 16 physicians were audio-recorded. Within 48 hours after the visit, patients completed […]

Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

Although African Americans (AAs) are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs), they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities […]

Complex multimorbidity and health outcomes in older adult cancer survivors

Objective: To characterize complex multimorbidity among cancer survivors and evaluate the association between cancer survivorship, time since cancer diagnosis, and self-reported fair/poor health, self-rated worse health in 2 years, and 2-year mortality. Methods: We used the 2010‐2012 Health and Retirement Study. Cancer survivors were individuals who reported a (nonskin) cancer diagnosis 2 years or more before the […]

Symptoms predicting health-related quality of life in prostate cancer patients treated with localized radiation therapy

radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Objective: Patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures can provide guidance for treatment decision making, symptom management, and discharge planning. HRQOL is often influenced by the distress experienced by patients from disease or treatment-related symptoms. This study aimed to identify symptoms that can predict changes in HRQOL in men undergoing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for nonmetastatic prostate […]

Use of prostate-specific antigen testing in Medicare beneficiaries: Association with previous evaluation

PSA testing

Objective: Determine uptake of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in Medicare beneficiaries according to previous receipt of PSA testing. Methods: A 5% random sample of men aged 67 years or older without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer was identified through 2009‐2012 Medicare claims. We measured the annualized frequency of PSA screening among men due for PSA testing, […]

The association of inherited variation in the CLOCK gene with breast cancer tumor grade

Background: Sufficient sleep and maintenance of circadian rhythm are important to health. We have shown that short duration of sleep before diagnosis is associated with higher-grade tumors among breast cancer patients. Earlier studies suggest that genetic variation in the CLOCK gene is associated with risk of cancers, including breast cancer. Studies of the association of genetic variation, including […]

Primary Care and Cancer Care

Prof Li Li

  Primary care and family medicine are at the forefront of our war against cancer. Primary care physicians provide comprehensive care for individual patients and the general population along the whole spectrum of cancer care continuum ranging from risk reduction, screening and early detection to survivorship. This special issue of Family Medicine and Community Health focuses on […]

Ten year risk assessment of ischemic cardiovascular disease and intervention analysis among middle-aged residents with moderate risk and above in a Shanghai-based community

ischemic heart disease

Authors: Xu, Qi; Shen, Jieyan; Shi, Rong; Zhao, Hui Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 92-100(9) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0100 Objective: The exposure conditions with regard to 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk among residents aged 45‐59 years treated in Hudong Community Health Service Center were surveyed to provide an objective basis for further studies on the […]

Characteristics of patients with erectile dysfunction in a family physician-led erectile dysfunction clinic: Retrospective case series

erectile dysfunction

Authors: Chiang, Lap Kin; Kam, Cheuk-Wai; Yau, Kin-Chung Michael; Ng, Lorna Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 85-91(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0114 Objectives: To examine the characteristics of patients with erectile dysfunction in a family physician led erectile dysfunction clinic; To review association of chronic disease spectrum and erectile dysfunction; To review initial treatment pattern and […]

Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer: An evidence-based review

Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer: An evidence-based review

Authors: Gonzalez, Sandra J.; Mejia de Grubb, Maria C.; Levine, Robert S. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 78-84(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0104 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer that affects one in three men and one in four women worldwide. Late-stage detection is associated with significantly lower 5-year survival rates. Although it is […]

Modified Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics course: Feasibility, trainee satisfaction, and sustainability potential

Obstetrics

Authors: Aggarwal, Anjali; Salemi, Jason L.; Yap, Bernice; Matas, Jennifer L.; Naik, Sameer; Zoorob, Roger J.; Salihu, Hamisu M. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 71-77(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0107 Objective: The main objective of this initiative was to present evaluation results from an innovative adaptation of the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training course. We modified the traditional […]

Student self-assessment versus preceptor assessment at the midpoint of a family medicine clerkship

student

Authors: Huang, William; Grigoryan, Larissa Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 65-70(6) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0105 Objective: To study how student self-assessment compared with the faculty’s assessment on our family medicine clerkship and to explore the effect of demographic factors on the ratings. Methods: Students and their faculty preceptors assessed the students’ achievement of clerkship objectives […]

Self-reported preferences for patient and provider roles in cancer treatment decision-making in the United States

cancer treatment decision making

Authors: Spooner, Kiara; Chima, Charles; Salemi, Jason L.; Zoorob, Roger J. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 43-55(13) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0102 Objective: To describe differences in preferred roles in cancer treatment decision-making and identify associated sociodemographic and health-related factors among adults in the United States. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data from the […]

Unplanned hospitalizations for metastatic cancers: The changing patterns of inpatient palliative care, discharge to hospice care, and in-hospital mortality in the United States

palliative care

Authors: Salemi, Jason L.; Chima, Charles C.; Spooner, Kiara K.; Zoorob, Roger J. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 13-28(16) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0106 Objective: To describe the rates and temporal trends of inpatient end-of-life care among patients hospitalized with metastatic cancer in the United States. Methods: We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to conduct a […]

Socioeconomic, environmental, and geographic factors and US lung cancer mortality, 1999‐2009

lung cancer

Authors: de Grubb, Maria C. Mejia1; Kilbourne, Barbara2; Kilbourne, Katy3; Langston, Michael4; Gittner, Lisa5; Zoorob, Roger J.1; Levine, Robert1 Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 3-12(10) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/FMCH.2017.0108 Background: The American Cancer Society estimates that about 25% of all US cancer deaths will be due to lung cancer ‐ more than from cancers of the colon, breast, […]

Healthy China 2030: “Without national health, there will be no comprehensive well-being”

healthy China 2030

Healthy China 2030: “Without national health, there will be no comprehensive well-being” pp. 75-76(2) Authors: Wang, Wei; Zakus, David On August 19–20, 2016, the China National Health and Wellness Conference was held in Beijing. Both President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang attended the meeting and delivered important speeches with key messages. Their contributions are […]

‘Feeling of despair’ as the leading cluster theme of conceptual descriptive analyses in participatory assessment

‘Feeling of despair’ as the leading cluster theme of conceptual descriptive analyses in participatory assessment: Russia Oxfam GB case study

‘Feeling of despair’ as the leading cluster theme of conceptual descriptive analyses in participatory assessment: Russia Oxfam GB case study Authors: Zakirova, Venera; Zakus, David This article provides a case study on participatory assessment based on experience gained from an EU‐Oxfam GB project entitled “Empowering Municipalities to Effectively Address Poverty” conducted in five small towns […]

Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs

HIV prevention

Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England Authors: Nyashanu, Mathew; Serrant, Laura HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan […]

Epidemiological study of hypertensive retinopathy in the primary care setting

Epidemiological study of hypertensive retinopathy in the primary care setting

Epidemiological study of hypertensive retinopathy in the primary care setting: Retrospective cross-sectional review of retinal photographs pp. 13-21(9) Authors: Chiang, Lap-kin; Yau, Michael K.C.; Kam, Cheuk-wai; Ng, Lorna V.; Zee, Benny C.Y. The objective is to estimate the prevalence and grading of hypertensive retinopathy in the primary care setting; examine the patient characteristics associated with […]

Mothers’ health-related quality of life

Mothers’ health-related quality of life

Mothers’ health-related quality of life: Its relationship with children’s health-related quality of life and behavior in low-income families Authors: Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Ip, Patrick; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen Objective: To examine the association between mothers’ health-related quality of life […]

Long-term care for aged ethnic minority people in Yunnan, China

Long-term care for aged ethnic minority people in Yunnan, China

Long-term care for aged ethnic minority people in Yunnan, China: Understanding the situation Authors: Zhang, Kaining; Zakus, David; Gao, Chuqun Chinese governmental sectors have been investing lots of money in setting up new institutions for long-term care (LTC) in rural China to respond to the predicted increasing and urgent needs of the growing number of aging people. […]