Category archives for all Original Research

Type 2 diabetes: Challenges facing GPs


Authors: Huo, Lili; Shaw, Jonathan E. China faces a huge task in managing the large numbers of people with diabetes. Primary care is at the forefront of this challenge, and needs to begin to adopt some of the management and organizational approaches that have been shown to be successful in tackling diabetes and similar chronic diseases. DOI:

Chronic disease in a digital health environment

digital health

Author: Pearce, Christopher Although we know that there are benefits to individual patients from electronic data, the next potential, and potentially the biggest, benefit will come from the technologies known as big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Harnessing the potential of computers to sift through large amounts of data will result in the possibility of generating insights into […]

Offshore teaching in chronic disease management: The Monash-Shenzhen experience

disease management

Authors: Piterman, Leon; Yang, Hui; Blashki, Grant The important role of GPs and the high prevalence and burden of chronic disease in China have been discussed in other articles in this series, so there is no need to reiterate this background here. This article deals with the pedagogy of chronic disease management as presented to cohorts of Chinese […]

Chronic heart failure: Role of the GP in management

heart failure

Authors: Piterman, Leon; Yang, Hui; Yin, Zhaoxia The commonest cause of chronic heat failure in China is ischemic heart disease, followed by hypertension and valvular heart disease. Echocardiography is essential in establishing a diagnosis as well as helping to identify a cause and to monitor progress. Management includes nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological treatment, and self-care with careful […]

Seguin Form Board as an intelligence tool for young children in an Indian urban slum 

Seguin Form Board as an intelligence tool for young children in an Indian urban slum  pp. 275-281(7) Authors: Koshy, Beena; Thomas T, Hannah Mary; Samuel, Prasanna; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kendall, Scott; Kang, Gagandeep DOI: Objective: The present study evaluates the concurrent and predictive validity of the Seguin Form Board Test (SFBT) as an intelligence tool for children in […]

Assessment of family physicians’ knowledge of childhood autism

Assessment of family physicians’ knowledge of childhood autism  pp. 266-274(9) Author: Hend, Mikhail Salam DOI: Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge of family physicians regarding childhood autism. Methods: The study is a one-way cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted between January and March 2017. The study involved 70 family physicians who were working and/or studying for a master […]

Counseling strategies for nutritional anemia by family physicians in Saudi Arabia, 2016: Implication for training

counseling strategies

Counseling strategies for nutritional anemia by family physicians in Saudi Arabia, 2016: Implication for training  pp. 259-265(7) Authors: Elfakki, Fakhralddin Abbas Mohammed; AlBarrak, Njood Suliman Muhammed Context: Prevalence of nutritional anemia among Saudi female and children is evident and has been reflected in different studies, most of researchers conclude that there is a gap in dietary counseling […]

Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children

Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya  Authors: Khee Loo, Kek; Rizzo, Shemra; Chen, Qiaolin; Weiss, Robert E.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Ettyang, Grace; Ernst, Judith; Samari, Goleen; Neumann, Charlotte G. Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition […]

Prevalence of and risk factors for eclampsia in pregnant women in India

prevalence of eclampsia in India

Authors: Agrawal, Sutapa; Walia, Gagandeep K.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Casas, Juan P.; Millett, Christopher Eclampsia is a potentially fatal disorder in pregnant women and remains an important cause of maternal and perinatal child morbidity and death worldwide. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for convulsions (not occurring from fever) during pregnancy in Indian women. Convulsion is a […]

Family medicine and community health have borderless health topics

wei wang

Family medicine and community health have borderless health topics  Author: Wang, Wei 2016 and 2017 have been a time of overturned expectations, full of uncertainty, as evidenced by the United Kingdom’s vote to leave the European Union, the victory of Donald Trump in the US presidential election and the humanitarian catastrophe in Syria. From the perspective […]

Effect of an educational intervention and parental vaccine refusal forms on childhood vaccination rates in a clinic with a large Somali population

childhood vaccination

Objective: The purpose of this study is to improve vaccination rates at a clinic with a large Somali population, and many vaccine hesitant parents. The study evaluated the effectiveness of some new materials for vaccine hesitant parents. Methods: Educational sessions were given to providers and staff to give “talking points” and to introduce a vaccine refusal form. […]

Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

Burden of road traffic accident in nepal

Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine […]

Mental health problems due to community violence exposure in a small urban setting

mental health

Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living […]

Assessing the accuracy of patient report of the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange) for smoking cessation counseling

smoking cessation

Objective: The 5As framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) is a recommended strategy for smoking cessation counseling in primary care. This study compares patient report with direct observation to assess the degree of recall bias for each of the 5As. Methods: Primary care visits by 107 adult smokers and 16 physicians were audio-recorded. Within 48 hours after the visit, patients completed […]

Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

Although African Americans (AAs) are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs), they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities […]

Complex multimorbidity and health outcomes in older adult cancer survivors

Objective: To characterize complex multimorbidity among cancer survivors and evaluate the association between cancer survivorship, time since cancer diagnosis, and self-reported fair/poor health, self-rated worse health in 2 years, and 2-year mortality. Methods: We used the 2010‐2012 Health and Retirement Study. Cancer survivors were individuals who reported a (nonskin) cancer diagnosis 2 years or more before the […]

Symptoms predicting health-related quality of life in prostate cancer patients treated with localized radiation therapy

radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Objective: Patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures can provide guidance for treatment decision making, symptom management, and discharge planning. HRQOL is often influenced by the distress experienced by patients from disease or treatment-related symptoms. This study aimed to identify symptoms that can predict changes in HRQOL in men undergoing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for nonmetastatic prostate […]

Use of prostate-specific antigen testing in Medicare beneficiaries: Association with previous evaluation

PSA testing

Objective: Determine uptake of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in Medicare beneficiaries according to previous receipt of PSA testing. Methods: A 5% random sample of men aged 67 years or older without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer was identified through 2009‐2012 Medicare claims. We measured the annualized frequency of PSA screening among men due for PSA testing, […]

The association of inherited variation in the CLOCK gene with breast cancer tumor grade

Background: Sufficient sleep and maintenance of circadian rhythm are important to health. We have shown that short duration of sleep before diagnosis is associated with higher-grade tumors among breast cancer patients. Earlier studies suggest that genetic variation in the CLOCK gene is associated with risk of cancers, including breast cancer. Studies of the association of genetic variation, including […]

Primary Care and Cancer Care

Prof Li Li

  Primary care and family medicine are at the forefront of our war against cancer. Primary care physicians provide comprehensive care for individual patients and the general population along the whole spectrum of cancer care continuum ranging from risk reduction, screening and early detection to survivorship. This special issue of Family Medicine and Community Health focuses on […]

Ten year risk assessment of ischemic cardiovascular disease and intervention analysis among middle-aged residents with moderate risk and above in a Shanghai-based community

ischemic heart disease

Authors: Xu, Qi; Shen, Jieyan; Shi, Rong; Zhao, Hui Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 92-100(9) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: Objective: The exposure conditions with regard to 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk among residents aged 45‐59 years treated in Hudong Community Health Service Center were surveyed to provide an objective basis for further studies on the […]

Characteristics of patients with erectile dysfunction in a family physician-led erectile dysfunction clinic: Retrospective case series

erectile dysfunction

Authors: Chiang, Lap Kin; Kam, Cheuk-Wai; Yau, Kin-Chung Michael; Ng, Lorna Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 85-91(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: Objectives: To examine the characteristics of patients with erectile dysfunction in a family physician led erectile dysfunction clinic; To review association of chronic disease spectrum and erectile dysfunction; To review initial treatment pattern and […]

Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer: An evidence-based review

Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer: An evidence-based review

Authors: Gonzalez, Sandra J.; Mejia de Grubb, Maria C.; Levine, Robert S. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 78-84(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer that affects one in three men and one in four women worldwide. Late-stage detection is associated with significantly lower 5-year survival rates. Although it is […]

Modified Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics course: Feasibility, trainee satisfaction, and sustainability potential


Authors: Aggarwal, Anjali; Salemi, Jason L.; Yap, Bernice; Matas, Jennifer L.; Naik, Sameer; Zoorob, Roger J.; Salihu, Hamisu M. Source: Family Medicine and Community Health, Volume 5, Number 1, 1 May 2017, pp. 71-77(7) Publisher: Compuscript DOI: Objective: The main objective of this initiative was to present evaluation results from an innovative adaptation of the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training course. We modified the traditional […]