Category archives for Volume 5 Issue 3

Overnight pulse oximetry for screening of obstructive sleep apnea in at-risk adult patients in the primary care setting: prospective case series

sleep apnea

Objective: To estimate prevalence of OSA among at risk adult patients in primary care setting. To test the correlation and agreement between overnight pulse oximetry and polysomnography (PSG). To test the OSA screening performance of overnight pulse oximetry. Design and Setting: Prospective case series involving adult Chinese patients with risk factors for OSA at a primary care […]

Adult-onset celiac disease for the primary care physician

celiac disease

Celiac disease is a common autoimmune condition with a prevalence of 1%‐2%. In recent years there has been a paradigm shift in management from tertiary care into the community. With a wide array of manifestations, including nonspecific and extraintestinal symptoms, this disorder can be difficult to diagnose, prolonging morbidity for patients. This review article aims […]

Social prescribing for healthy aging: sustaining social capital in India


The proportion of the geriatric population is increasing globally, and the resultant demographic burden is becoming a significant public health concern. Apart from physical ill health associated with aging, social changes such as urbanization, migration, breakdown of the joint family system, inadequate living space, and the generation gap have a negative impact on the mental […]

Understanding cultures beyond medicine

In my patient’s high-context culture, he viewed the discussion of hospice care as a form of unspoken abandonment. Being in a large power distance culture, he was not conditioned to challenge the authority in the large health institution. His only choice seemed to be agreeing with what he was offered and not uttering a word […]

Tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy use among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States: Considerations for primary care


Pharmacotherapies for tobacco cessation are efficacious and recommended during quit attempts. Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States are less likely to use medication-based aids for tobacco cessation, despite greater difficulty achieving long-term abstinence. The reasons for this include, among others, provider- and patient-level considerations. Primary care clinicians play an important role in encouraging racial/ethnic minority […]

Effect of an educational intervention and parental vaccine refusal forms on childhood vaccination rates in a clinic with a large Somali population

childhood vaccination

Objective: The purpose of this study is to improve vaccination rates at a clinic with a large Somali population, and many vaccine hesitant parents. The study evaluated the effectiveness of some new materials for vaccine hesitant parents. Methods: Educational sessions were given to providers and staff to give “talking points” and to introduce a vaccine refusal form. […]

Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

Burden of road traffic accident in nepal

Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine […]

Mental health problems due to community violence exposure in a small urban setting

mental health

Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living […]

Assessing the accuracy of patient report of the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange) for smoking cessation counseling

smoking cessation

Objective: The 5As framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) is a recommended strategy for smoking cessation counseling in primary care. This study compares patient report with direct observation to assess the degree of recall bias for each of the 5As. Methods: Primary care visits by 107 adult smokers and 16 physicians were audio-recorded. Within 48 hours after the visit, patients completed […]

Health is primary

Prof Li Li

Family and community medicine provide primary and fundamental care for individuals and population. This issue of Family Medicine and Community Health has assembled reports addressing a mix of work encountered by primary care physicians in their daily practice, ranging from smoking cessation, mental health, violence, aging and obstructive sleep apnea to management of celiac disease. […]