Cochrane Updates & NICE Guidelines, Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations (PEARLS) are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners.
PEARLS provide guidance on whether a treatment is effective or ineffective, prepared as an educational resource and not replacing clinician judgment in the management of individual cases.
Clinical question: How effective are mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults?
PEARLS 406, October 2013, written by Brian R McAvoy
Clinical question: How effective is diet, exercise, or both for weight reduction in women after childbirth?
Clinical question: How effective are fluoride varnishes in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents
This guidance makes recommendations on interventions at the individual level, and are aimed at changing health-damaging behaviours among people ≥16 years of age. It includes a range of approaches, from single interventions delivered as the opportunity arises, to planned, high-intensity interventions that may take place over a number of sessions.The behaviours covered relate to alcohol, diet, physical activity, sex, and smoking; however, the recommendations may also apply to behaviour changes related to other health issues.recommendations are inter-linked and should be implemented together. The recommendations cover policy and strategy, commissioning, planning, delivery, training, and evaluation of behaviour change interventions at the individual level. They also cover behaviour change techniques, the maintenance of change and organisational and national support.
Domestic violence and abuse is a complex issue that needs sensitive handling by a range of health and social care professionals. The cost, in both human and economic terms, is so significant that even marginally effective interventions are cost effective.
Women and men can experience this type of violence in heterosexual and same-sex relationships.
The recommendations cover the broad spectrum of domestic violence and abuse, including violence perpetrated on men for those in same-sex relationships, and on young people.
Working in a multi-agency partnership is the most effective way to approach the issue at both an operational and strategic level. Initial and ongoing training and organisational support is also needed.
The guidance is for health and social care commissioners, specialist domestic violence and abuse staff, and others whose work may bring them into contact with people who experience or perpetrate domestic violence and abuse. In addition, it may be of interest to members of the public.
Publication date: 01 June 2014